Production and Delivery
Starting from the forest
Disassembling industry producing high quality products of naturally growing raw material
Sawmilling is like a big jigsaw puzzle, where several grades and lengths are being handled simultaneously between different customers and markets in a most profiable way. In practice the emphasis between products and markets can change very quickly – for instance due to demand, supply or exchange rates. If one market’s demand alters markedly this will have an immediate effect on the falling products, which may have been going to other countries.
The cutting matrixes – the way the trees are cut – are decided primarily by market requirements and strategic choices, because by steering the lengths the mill combines the market specific length stipulations also with different delivery types like containers and trailers, where the right length combination is vital for the correct utilization of freight space.
The way production and sales planning are conducted varies between different companies, depending on their strategies, resources and the raw material procurement.
In order to get full benefit from the planning one needs to have relatively accurate customer information of the existing customers and also of the potential ones: volumes, enduses, dimensions, grades, lengths, etc.
One can say that the first step of adding value to the log takes place in the forest, where the trees are cross cut from the quality, length and top diameter point of view in the best possible way in order to meet the requirements set by the end uses.
The purpose of the sawing process is to use sawing and edging to produce as much high quality timber that meets the requirements of the buyer as possible. The special feature of the sawmilling industry is the challenge of falling products: in order to produce one top quality product according customers needs, there are always several other products and by products, which need to be placed as well.
Sawn timber manufacturing
Sawn timber manufacturing is a highly automated process. It proceeds in the order of the the process.
After sorting and measuring the log, the actual sawing process begins. Process begins with peeling and continues with demonstration of sawing techniques, sawing machines, saw lines, by-product handling and blade technology. This is followed by fresh sorting, ribbing, drying, dry sorting and packing of lumber.
SAWING IN THE NORDIC TRADITION requires that the cant is halved from the middle in the resawing stage. Other cuts divide the log into the centre yield and side yield. The centre yield consists of two or more sawn pieces that may be of the same thickness or different. Exceptions to this sawing method (e.g. heart-free) are called special sawing methods and their use is always agreed separately between the sawmill and customer.
Sideboards – like the lower visual grades – are falling products from the centre cut production. Therefore the volumes are dependent on production volumes, but their volumes cannot be increased nor decreased like the centre cut production.
Centre cut pieces
Centre cut pieces (heavier sections) are produced from the middle of the log at the end of quarter sawing process. Pieces produced at this point of the process are more valuable and expensive, as the material is of high quality and the production process is demanding.
After sawing timber is dried and trimmed into final lengths. Logs are bucked to lengths, which allows 5 cm to be trimmed from both ends at final grading. Therefore the sawn goods lengths are 10 cm below log lengths.
Timber can be dried in chamber and progressive kilns.
The moisture content of exported dry sawn timber is 20 +4%, but depending on the application, the sawn timber can also be dried according to the customer’s order.
The stamp at the end of the piece, i.e. the shipping mark, indicates its manufacturer and quality. Stamps used by different manufacturers can usually be found on the company’s website.
In strength-graded sawn timber, the pieces are sorted and stamped according to an agreed standard.
The timber is tied with straps and usually wrapped in plastic wrap to protect the pieces during the transfer, transportation and storage stages. The package is marked with product information. The size of the finished package is about 1×1 m. The length of the package depends on the length of the sawn timber.
Visual quality and strength
Timber pieces can be sorted according to both visual quality and strength. In quality sorting, a piece is evaluated on the basis of all four sides, as described on grading page. Strength graded timber is used in load-bearing structures.
Visually or by machine
Structural timber refers to spruce or pine timber that is used for load-bearing structures or part of such a structure and for which there are set minimum strength and elasticity requirements. Structural timber is graded mechanically using different machine vision, X-ray, ultrasonic or natural frequency methods or visually. In visual strength grading, the criteria for determination include the number and location of branches, the twist of the sawn timber piece and cracks. Machine strength grading is based on mechanical measurements of the timber’s density and knots
Machine-graded sawn timber must bear the CE marking, which indicates that it complies with a harmonized product standard. The CE-marked product meets the essential safety and health requirements of the Construction Products Directive.
CE MARKING REQUIRED EG. FOR THE FOLLOWING PRODUCTS
Strength graded timber
Wood panels and cladding
Structural finger-jointed timber
Wooden electric poles
Windows and doors
Finnish sawmills can reliably deliver sawn softwood throughout the whole year and as a result our clients can rely on our deliveries and keep their stocks small. In Finland, wood harvesting, sawmills and delivery are run with first-class technology and competence. This secures deliveries regardless of the weather conditions and the time of the year.
The standards of the target country are taken into account in the manufacture of Nordic sawn timber. The goods are delivered quickly and by the shortest route to the customer in accordance with the INCOTERMS delivery terms.