Tree Species

nordic conifers

Two main species

The wood species mainly used by the sawmill industry are pine and spruce. Half of Finland’s forests are pine forests and about a third are spruce forests. The characteristics of the trunk are affected by the age of the tree, the place of growth, the growth rate and the climate. The tree’s distinct annual rings tell of its growth. The lighter, sparse annual ring is spring wood, dark summer wood.


Spruce, Picea abies, thrives on shady, nutritious lands and can grow up to 40 meters in length. Spruce is straight, lightweight and withstands moisture fluctuations well. Its heart and surface wood are light in color. Spruce is a popular wood in interior and exterior structures as well as in various paneling and boarding.


The pine, Pinus sylvestris, grows in bright, dry, even barren places. Like a spruce, it can grow up to 40 meters in length. Pine wood is hard and rigid and withstands moderate humidity fluctuations. In pine, the heartwood is dark, the surface wood is light in color. Pine is used in the construction and carpentry industries, among others.

visual & technical

Differences between the species

Pine and spruce are the most common coniferous tree species used in construction.

There are both visual and technical differences between tree species, which also make their uses different.


Trunk parts and applications.

properties of spruce

Large proportion of heartwood, surface wood penetrates little water

Straight grains

Few resin cavities, usually less than 40 mm in size

Long part of healthy branches in the trunk

Short dry-branched section, dry branches are small in size

Healthy branches of the same color as other wood

effects in use

Does not twist easily, withstands moisture in facades

The grains do not arise during the treatment

Good adhesive and surface treatment properties

Knots in the timber are usually healthy

Little edging in the lumber, planable

The surface of the lumber is evenly lght in color


Trunk parts and applications.

properties of pine

The heartwood is impermeable to water

The surface wood is very permeable to water

Resin evenly in the wood

Long branchless part in the trunk

The dry-branched trunk also contains healthy branches

The basal tree is denser than the top tree

The wood density of the branch is low, the branch grows at right angles to the core of the trunk

effects in use

Inherent rot and insect resistance

Good saturability, suitable for outdoor use

Protects wood from moisture and heat

Surface and side boards low-branched / branchless

The inner inserts of medium goods are usually healthy

The sawn timber from the base is strong

Easy planing


Slowly, during decades

A tree matures in Finland, depending on the site, region and species, within roughly 50 to 120 years.

Wood From Finland

Wood from Finland is a national promotion program for Finnish sawn timber operated by Finnish Sawmill Association.


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